Evidence Reviews

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We produce evidence reviews based on our assessments of needs and gaps in evidence-based environmental health practice and policy. We also work with researchers and environmental public health students for reviews. These documents are peer-reviewed and the content is the responsibility of the authors.

Public Health Planning for Wildfire Smoke

Population level wildfire smoke exposure is complex. It is difficult to measure and prevent. Reducing the adverse physical and mental health effects related to smoke exposure requires insight into…

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Indigenous Food Safety and Security: Community Adaptations in the Wake of Climate Pressures

As ecosystems try to adapt to climate volatility, so are Indigenous communities striving to become more food self-sufficient — both in reaction to and in anticipation of further climate pressures…

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Understanding the Public Health Implications Concerning Shale Gas Production and Hydraulic Fracturing

The intent of this document is to synthesize scientific information related to public health concerns of relevance to Canada about shale gas production (including the pre-production stages of…

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Summary: Animals as Sentinels for Public Health Risks from Oil and Gas Development

This document was based on a contracted review: …

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Exposure to Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Perinatal Health

The period between conception and early childhood when vital organs are forming and rapidly developing is the most vulnerable of life stages to the effects of toxic environment exposures, …

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Reducing cardiovascular health impacts from traffic-related noise and air pollution: intervention strategies

Topics: Outdoor Air

Recent studies suggest that exposure to both traffic-related air pollution (TrAP) and to road traffic noise (RTN) are independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). While the exact…

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Cardiovascular Health, Traffic-related Air Pollution and Noise: Are associations mutually confounded? A systematic review

This review assessed the confounding effect of one traffic-related exposure (noise or air pollutants) on the association between the other exposure and cardiovascular outcomes. A systematic review…

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Forest Residues to Energy: Is this a pathway towards healthier communities?

Forest residues are non-merchantable woody biomass found in forests and wood waste from logging practices and industrial operations, such as sawmills. Forest residues are a convenient fuel for…

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Air Quality and Community Health Impact of Animal Manure Management

Nearly 200 million tonnes of livestock manure are generated in Canada each year.1 Manure storage and land application tends to produce odour, greenhouse gases, microbes, and particulate matter,…

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Nanotechnology: A Review of Exposure, Health Risks and Recent Regulatory Developments

Nanotechnology is the creation of materials, devices, and systems by controlling matter at the nanometer scale (1-100 billionths of a meter). Potential exposures to engineered nanoparticles (ENPs…

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Residential Air Cleaner Use to Improve Indoor Air Quality and Health: A Review of the Evidence

Air cleaners are designed to remove pollutants from indoor air, but their effectiveness depends on the air cleaner design and set-up, as well as on the presence of specific pollutants, their…

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Minimizing Children’s Non-residential Exposure to Traffic-related Pollution

A significant portion of children’s exposure to traffic-related pollution occurs in and around schools and daycares and in transit to these locations. New schools and daycare facilities should be…

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Active Transportation in Urban Areas: Exploring Health Benefits and Risks

Active transportation refers mainly to walking and cycling for transportation.

Health Benefits: 

  • People who use active transportation are, on average, more physically fit,…
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Residential Use of Wood-Burning Appliances in Canada

This report summarizes information on woodsmoke emissions and health effects associated with woodsmoke exposures from residential wood-burning (RWB) in Canada and provides a qualitative indication…

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Current Evidence on the Effectiveness of Interventions During Heat Episodes

Topics: Climate Change

This summary provides current evidence on the effect iveness of a variety of described heat interventions by highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of each. The authors argue that in the…

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Adverse Cardiovascular Health Effects of Exposure to Short-Term Air Pollution

Based on appraisals of recent systematic reviews and patient information, this report provides an overview of: 1) evidence available to generate health protection measures; 2) health protection…

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How efficacious and how practical are personal health protection measures recommended to reduce morbidity and mortality during heat episodes?

Topics: Climate Change

The potential impact of elevated temperatures on mortality and morbidity is severe. Every year, hospitalizations and deaths occur in numbers well above average during and just after days of…

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What is the Evidence on Applicability and Effectiveness of Public Health Interventions in Reducing Morbidity and Mortality during Heat Episodes?

Topics: Climate Change

Heat events are associated with a diverse range of adverse health effects including excess mortality as well as many symptoms falling under the broad umbrella of “heat-related illness”. Although…

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Cardiovascular Effects of Sub-daily Levels of Ambient Fine Particles

Topics: Outdoor Air

While the effects of daily fine particulate exposure (PM) have been well reviewed, the epidemiological and physiological evidence of cardiovascular effects associated to sub-daily exposures has…

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