Systematic Review of Environmental Burden of Disease in Canada
Few studies have estimated the environmental burden of disease (EBD) in Canada. Available data suggest that the total EBD for high-income, developed countries, like Canada, may range from as low as 1 – 5% to as high as 15 – 22%, depending on how EBD is calculated and defined. Potentially preventable illnesses and deaths resulting from exposure to environmental contaminants have been estimated to account for $3.6 to $9.1 billion in annual health care costs in Canada. Excluding lifestyle and occupational risk factors, the strongest evidence is for air pollution as a major contributor to EBD in Canada and elsewhere. To ensure the design of effective intervention strategies, future EBD studies in Canada should be conducted at provincial or local levels.